Transition Culture

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2 Nov 2012

An interview with Kevin Anderson: “Rapid and deep emissions reductions may not be easy, but 4°C to 6°C will be much worse”

Kevin Anderson is the Deputy Director of the UK Tyndall Centre and is an expert on greenhouse-gas emissions trajectories.  He will be giving the annual Cabot Institute lecture, ‘Real Clothes for the Emperor’ on 6th November in Bristol, which has already sold out.  I was hoping to be able to go and report on it for you here, but no longer can, so instead, I spoke to Kevin last week, by Skype.  I am very grateful for his time, and for a powerful, honest and thought-provoking interview.

Could you share with us your analysis of where you think we find ourselves in terms of climate change and what’s our current trajectory if we carry on as we are?

In terms of the language around climate change, I get the impression that there’s still a widely held view that we can probably hold to avoiding dangerous climate change characterised by this almost magical 2°C rise in global mean surface temperature. This is the target that we have established in Copenhagen and then re-iterated in Cancun and to which most nations of the world have now signed up to; I think the rhetoric that we should not exceed this 2°C rise is still there.  

It’s not just about our emissions now.  If you look at the emissions we’ve already put out into the atmosphere since the start of this century, and you look at what’s likely to be emitted over the next few years, then I think it tells a very different story.  It’s hard to imagine that, unless we have a radical sea-change in attitudes towards emissions, we will avoid heading towards a 6°C rise by the end of this century.

Can we for definite, in your opinion, say that this year’s extreme weather can be linked to climate change?

Certainly not. I think it’s fair to say that it’s unlikely we will ever be able to robustly link any particular single event to climate change. Now that’s not to say we can’t get a greater level of attribution, where we can start to say the things that we are seeing are what we would expect to see with a warming climate.  We are struggling to find any other reasons for them and therefore it does seem a high probability that these events are caused, if not exacerbated by, the rise in CO2 emissions and other greenhouse gases and hence the increase in temperature. But I think it’s unlikely that we’d ever be able to say that any single event is a ‘climate change event’.

But would you say that if we were still at 280 parts per million it would be much less likely that we would have had a summer like this?

Yes, I think that would be a fair comment. It would be much less likely.  Before this summer, the probability of having this summer’s weather would have been less if we had not seen significant rises in greenhouse gases and their cumulative impact in the atmosphere. We are starting now to see events that it’s difficult to explain in terms of normal probabilities. We get extreme weather events, we always have had such events; extremes do occur. But if extremes start to occur regularly they’re no longer extremes, and what you’re then seeing is not a weather extreme, you’re seeing change in the climate. But it’s hard to say that any particular event in a range of events is a consequence of climate change, and not just an extreme weather event.

Sometimes people talk about this idea of ‘a new normal’, that the basic conditions around us have changed. In terms of what’s happening in terms of the climate, how would you characterise the ‘new normal’ that we’re in given the rise we’ve had in emissions so far?

I think it would probably be a very short normal, I don’t think this is the normal at all.  It’s the normal for today, but I think the rate of increase of emissions, and there is no sign at all of that rate significantly coming down, would suggest that we’ll be reaching a new normal, and then another new normal, and then another new normal. I’m one of the people that concludes that we’re likely to experience significant climate change impacts over the next 1,2,3 decades and obviously beyond that point. At the moment, unless we change our emissions pathways and trajectory, the normal will be changing regularly.

You have already argued and you’ll be arguing in Bristol on November 6th that responding adequately to climate change and economic growth are no longer compatible. Could you flesh that case out a little bit for us?

Now I’m going to talk specifically about the Annex 1, the wealthy parts of the world, the OECD countries, broadly, the countries that are fairly well industrialised. In those parts of the world, the rate of reduction in emissions that would be necessary for us to even stay within an outside chance of avoiding dangerous climate change, characterised by the 2°C rise that we’re all internationally committed to, would be in the order of around 10% per annum.

Though a very approximate guide, it’s far removed from the 1, 2 or 3% that most energy scenarios or emissions scenarios consider.  It is well beyond anything we’ve been able to countenance, well beyond virtually anything so far that we’ve analysed. What we know is that in the short term, because we need to start this now, we cannot deliver reduction by switching to a low carbon energy supply, we simply cannot get the supply in place quickly enough.

Therefore, in the short to medium term the only major change that we can make is in consuming less. Now that would be fine, we could become more efficient in what we consume by probably 2 – 3% per annum reduction. But bear in mind, if our economy was say growing at 2% per annum, and we were trying to get a 3% per annum reduction in our emissions, that’s a 5% improvement in the efficiency of what we’re doing each year, year on year.

Our analysis for 2°C suggests we need a 10% absolute reduction per annum, and there is no analysis out there that suggests that is in any way compatible with economic growth. If you consider the Stern Report, Stern was quite clear that there was no evidence that any more than a 1% per annum reduction in emissions had ever been associated with anything other than “economic recession or upheaval”, I think was the exact quote.

So we have no historical precedents for anything greater than 1% per annum reduction in emissions. We’re saying we need nearer 10% per annum, and this is something we need to be doing today. And therefore, we can draw a very clear conclusion from this, that in the short to medium term, the way for the Annex 1, the wealthy parts of the world to meet their obligations to 2°C, is to cut back very significantly on consumption. And that would therefore mean in the short to medium term a reduction in our economic activity i.e. we could not have economic growth.

Now we might have a steady-state economy, but my overall sense is that the maths probably point to us having to consume less each year for the next few years, maybe a decade or so.

Has that ever happened before? As I understand it, when the Soviet Union collapsed it was 9% cut and that was just for 1 year. What would 10% a year look like?

My understanding with the collapse of the Eastern Bloc countries was that the drop was about 5% per year for up to about 10 years. So what we saw there was a relatively prolonged, completely unplanned, and as it turned out very chaotic and uneven reduction in emissions, and even then only delivered about a half to a quarter of, the rate of reduction, what we would need for 2°C.

So as their economy collapsed, their emissions dropped by about 5% per annum for about 10 years. We would be needing at least 10% per annum if not considerably higher and for longer than a 10 year period. For the Soviet Union, the economic collapse, though a pretty terrible time for many people, still did not achieve the rate of reductions that we would need to be seeing here.

Of course our view is that to deliver on 2°C , we should plan the economic contraction. It need not necessarily have the devastating impact that it very clearly had, and very inequitable impact, in Russia in particular.

Given that the current administration or indeed any administration that would be elected in this country would never be able to run on a platform of shrinking the economy by 10% every year, what are the implications? How do the need to do that and democracy sit alongside each other?

Firstly I don’t say we have to reduce our level of consumption by 10% per annum in terms of material goods. I’m not saying our economy has to reduce by 10% per annum. The emissions have to come down at 10% per annum, but we should be able to get some efficiency improvements as well. So the economy would not have to come down as fast as the rate of emissions coming down. It’s very important to make that distinction, and of course the more low-hanging fruit that we can find, and I think there’s a lot more out there than we’ve discovered previously- the less the material contraction of the economy would need to be. From some of our provisional work we have identified some very significant improvements in the efficiency of how we do what we do; some technical, some behavioural.

I don’t think it’s necessarily as dire as you’re painting from an economic perspective. Nevertheless we are talking here at best a steady-state economy. The analysis that I and colleagues in the Tyndall Centre have undertaken would suggest there probably has to be a reduction in our consumption and an economic contraction.

How would we sell that? Well, we’ve sold it at the moment. It’s very clear in the UK and many parts of Europe that what we’re seeing is at best stagnation, if not an economic reduction in our level of consumption. So we have actually got that at the moment. We’re not all finding this utterly dire .. not that it’s been evenly spread, I think it’s been unfairly spread. I think equity should be one of our main considerations here. We have to bear in mind that even if we have an economic contraction that wouldn’t necessarily mean that for many people they would have to consume less.

I take the very clear view on this that the distributional effects would very likely mean that many people in the UK for instance would not see a reduction in their levels of consumption or their levels of wellbeing, but others of us in the UK, like myself, would certainly have to see  reduction in levels of consumption.  Probably not a reduction in levels of wellbeing but certainly in levels of consumption. So I think distributional impacts might mean that it could be much more attractive, or less unattractive, to policy makers than at first sight it would seem.

Particularly given that we face a lot of issues now with unemployment, welfare reductions etc., issues that disproportionately affect people in the middle-lower income band; it is these people that could actually benefit from a transition to a much more efficient and lower carbon economy.

The implications will obviously have to be thought through, but any government that embraced a more sophisticated analysis of climate change would likely recognise the economic situation that we have got ourselves into anyway with our current model. Put those two together and there are real opportunities now for a significant transition in how we do what we do; a transition away from the dogmatic economic growth model and towards a steady-state low carbon alternative.

What do you see as the role, certainly in terms of the Transition approach, as very much about what a bottom-up, community-led response to that looks like, what’s your sense of the role that communities can play in making that happen?

I take the view that the community approach, the bottom-up approach, is absolutely pivotal to resolving some of the challenges and issues that we find ourselves facing now. So I think communities are really important here. They’re important in a number of ways.

You might make an argument that the actions of any individual, of any household, of any local community, in and of themselves are relatively insignificant, I all too often hear this. The point is less about the emissions of an individual, though still important, but more about the example it sets. It gives other people the opportunity to see that you can do something differently.

If communities, and even if it’s only one or two communities are starting to do things significantly differently, that means we have an example of what we can do. If those examples are successful they can spread. Once they spread, policy makers can start to see those examples at work and can start to set a top-down agenda that can coincide with the bottom-up agenda. We can actually point policy makers to where it’s working and make arguments for implementing policies that would facilitate those sorts of changes.

If we are going to get out of the hole we’ve got ourselves into there’s real scope for some partnership between bottom-up-individuals, through to communities etc. – and top-down, trying to facilitate initiatives as they emerge. It’s the kind of partnership we need if we are going to see real substantive change. And if we see that in the UK, that helps within the EU and can signal a wider, global transition. I think we all have a responsibility to try and bring these changes about in our own lives and our immediate environments, and actually this could be significant. What we do ourselves is absolutely central to bringing about substantive change.

What do you see as being the role of scientists in all this? Should they only focus on definitely proven science or move more towards how James Hansen is taking more of an activist stance. How do you see that balance between science and activism?

This is quite a difficult question.  My view here is that as scientists we have to behave as scientists. Now we are human beings, and so science will never be the perfect, objective, neutral profession that the textbooks might try to describe it as. Nevertheless I think it is really important in our science to remain neutral and objective, as much as we ever can. Science is not about black and white, there is a huge amount of  uncertainty in a lot of science, there’s a huge amount of probabilities and clearly climate change has a lot of this wrapped up in it. But I think it is absolutely pivotal that as scientists we behave as scientists.

Now as individuals, as citizens – we may be scientists but we are also citizens – I see nothing wrong with standing up and saying I think my and other people’s science raises concerns for society and so I have to chosen to act on that analysis.  There is a duality here. An individual can, as a scientist, produce their work neutrally, and then they can use that work to inform how they act as a citizen.

If Hansen and others want to chain themselves to bulldozers building new runways, that is their choice as a citizen, I don’t disagree with that. What I would disagree with is that if anyone starts to misuse science to support other sets of views. Because people like Hansen’s analysis looks to be more extreme, people then assume that he is pushing the boundaries of the science. I think the scientists that are pushing the boundaries are those that are deliberately, and I know many of these people, holding to a line that is politically palatable, because that is what politicians, what their pay masters, what society wants to hear.

Climate scientist James Hansen being arrested at a protest against the Keystone XL pipeline.

Actually I think Hansen and some of those scientists who are prepared to stand up and make quite strong statements from their science are the ones that are being more neutral and objective; far too many of the scientists who are working on climate change, are towing, in my view, a political line.  It looks like it’s neutral because it doesn’t sound extreme, it fits within the orthodoxy. But that is not the way we should be doing science. Whether it fits within the orthodoxy or not we should be objective, robust, direct and honest about science.

You spend a lot of your time surrounded by all the papers and research and stuff that’s coming out, all the models that get worse and worse. How do you personally cope with that, and what do you do in your own life that’s motivated by what you encounter in your professional life?

I have to say it gets increasingly difficult, it has affected my personal life quite considerably over the last few years and is getting worse. I find it very hard to engage with the science and then not link that to what we as individuals, what society, what policy makers are doing, or evidently not doing. It has been really challenging for me with some work colleagues, less so in the immediate group that I’m involved with here in Manchester, but certainly wider colleagues who I work with on climate change who, it seems to me, have no regard for what their research tells them.

For many, but with significant exceptions, their work seems to be little more than something that pays the mortgage. I find that quite difficult. I take the view that it is incumbent on us as scientists and citizens that we should be changing what we’re doing in our own lives, and I think that people would take much more note of the analysis that we do if we decided to live broadly in accordance with our science. In my view, far too few scientists who work on climate change actually do that.

But also I find it increasingly difficult not to challenge friends and family, who often appear to have complete disregard for the impacts of their action.  I’ve got to the point now where I think that when we’re profligately emitting, we’re knowingly damaging the lives and the prospects of some of the poorest people in our communities, both in the UK, but more significantly globally. Yet we obscenely carry on doing this.  We’re happy to put a few pence into a collection pot in the middle of town to help people living in poorer parts of the world but we don’t seem to be prepared to make substantive changes to how we’re living our lives- even when we recognise the impact our emissions are having.

And yet science is pretty clear on this, that vulnerable people in the poorer parts of the world will suffer dire repercussions of what we are doing now and what we’ve already done. I find that almost reprehensible that scientists are able to completely ignore such a very clear message; we know that the people on the coastal strips of Bangladesh will suffer very significantly from our behaviour as will many other people, poor people around the world. And we really do not collectively as a society and even often as individuals demonstrate any meaningful care or compassion.

I’ve cut back on many of the activities I previously pursued.  Many of my friendships linked to activities; as a keen rock climber, I used to travel away for breaks by plane. This has all had to change quite considerably.  I have close friends from when I used to work in the oil industry, friends who think climate change is a serious issue but are not prepared to make any changes to their lifestyles. It has raised some serious challenges for me in maintaining personal relationships.

I don’t want to pretend that it’s easy. I do not think that the future, for those of us that are in the very fortunate position of living in the West, is full of win-win opportunities. People who have done well, very well out of our western system, and live very carbon profligate lifestyles are going to face difficult challenges, and we should not pretend otherwise.

Until we actually embrace alternative means of finding value in our lives, I think that transition from where we are today, high-carbon, high-energy lifestyles, to ultimately lower-carbon lifestyles is going to be both difficult and unpopular.  But ultimately, I do not see an alternative.  Rapid and deep emissions reductions may not be easy- but 4°C to 6°C will be much worse.

Do you see any possibility that that might come from and be led by government?

No, I don’t think it will be led by government. I don’t think it will be led by anyone. I think it will be an emergent outcome of a society that cares, of which government is part and citizens and individuals are part as well. I have never particularly liked the idea of great people, of wonderful leadership, I much more believe in an emergent system, the properties and values that are embedded within a system.

Now we might see that, manifested sometimes in a leader, but it actually is an outcome of that society moving in a particular direction. So that’s why, to me, I’m not looking for some great person to come on their white charger and take this forward. I’m looking for all of us to engage, and out of that will emerge a new way of thinking of the world.

Given the economic challenges, crisis, whatever we want to call it, that we are seeing at the moment, this is a real opportunity for change. An opportunity we need to grasp. We need to think differently, think positively, but recognise in my view that it will not be easy. We can institute these changes ourselves both bottom-up and top-down. It is this kind of leadership we need, leadership from all of us.

Do you think from a climate change perspective actually a deepening and a worsening recession is the best thing that could happen to us?

At the moment I just see it as blaming everyone else. Inequity is going up, not down. Recessions are not good times– we clearly are not all in it together. Many of us have not made any changes to the restaurants that we go to, the hotels that we go to, the holidays that we take, and yet the other side is we are completely stripping back welfare, and we’re not investing in green infrastructure. We’re constantly putting money, a third of a trillion into the banks, not into a new grid network or a new set of renewable technologies or retro-fitting houses. So we have the prospect of doing things differently, offered us by the recession but we’re letting those opportunities go, on a day to day basis we’re throwing these opportunities away. It could be a much more positive drive toward a low carbon and resilient society than it’s turning out to be. 

Bill McKibben argues that we need to get back to 350 parts per million. Is that possible?

Well it is in the very long term. But within the sort of time frame that we’re talking about at the moment, unless the geo-engineering routes work and I think we have to be very cautious about sucking the CO2 out of the air when we can’t even turn the lights off when we leave a room at the moment! I find this quite bizarre, but it is not to say we shouldn’t spend some money now on research into negative emission technologies.

I think it highly unlikely that we’ll get back to 350 within quite a lot of generations. That’s not to say we shouldn’t have it as a goal, but what I think we should be looking to do is to stabilise the concentration as quickly as possible at the levels they are today. They’ll be higher tomorrow and higher the day after that. What we need to do immediately is to stop that rate of growth and then get the CO2 out of the atmosphere as quickly as we can.

I don’t know whether we’ll be able to suck the stuff out. At the moment it’s a long way away. It’s a Dr Strangelove future. That’s not to say it may not have some purchase in the long-term but at the moment we’re digging out shale gas and tar sands and lots of coal. We’re going to be digging under the Arctic. We don’t need to concern ourselves too much with geo-engineering for the future, we just need to stop getting fossil fuels out of the ground today.

You talked about the need to cut emissions by 10% a year and how difficult that’s going to be and how it’s not going to be an easy thing and it’ll affect every aspect of what people do, particularly the people who are used to having it better. Can you describe a bit what you think it’ll look like when we get there? What’s your vision of what things would be like if we actually do this successfully, if we’re able to muster the will and the collective spirit and we actually manage to pull it off? Can you describe what it might be like when we get there?

This is quite hard… what will the future look like? It’s difficult for us as scientists and engineers not to impose our other personal ways of seeing the world. There are particular changes that I would like to see the world achieve that are not related to carbon or climate change, not to embody those in my view of the future is not easy.

I’m 50 years old now. I had a very good life in the 1970s and a pretty good life in the 1980s. I don’t think my quality of life has significantly improved since the 1970s and 80s, and yet my emissions and the emissions per capita have really gone up very significantly.

So we have lived good quality, relatively lower-carbon lives than we are today, not very long ago. Now a lot of that was because we consumed less. We still lived fairly high-consumption lifestyles, and I think if we allied the technical expertise that we have now that could really improve the technologies that we actually use to deliver lifestyles that are very good – we’re not talking about going a long way back to times when people were very impoverished.

We had good medical treatment, we had good schools, good transport networks. So I think we can ally both our current technical skills and abilities, with a recognition that we consumed considerably less than we consume today but had a not noticeably different lifestyles – going back to the 50s, 40s or the 30s would be very different, but I don’t think that’s true for the 70s and 80s.

Such a transition would certainly be challenging, with some significant equity and distributional impacts, and with a shift in emphasis from a strongly individual and consumption based society to one that embraces more collaboration.  I acknowledge this would be more attractive to me, but I recognise that some people would not see such change in a positive light.   Nevertheless, I think it’s hard to imagine ourselves getting out of the hole we’re in without a greater degree of collective effort.

I don’t think we should be looking to go back to the point where we can’t travel, and where we’re living austere lives.  With a greater degree of equity, scarce energy resources can be balanced with high-welfare lives.

It’s a future about sufficiency more than it is about greed and wants, whether it’ll be radically different from where we are today will depend on how fast we respond now, but I don’t think it necessarily has to be. We will have lots of opportunities to behave differently, adopt lower consumption habits, and ally that with significant changes in the types and the efficiency of the technologies that are already available. All this could steer us in a resilient low-carbon direction.

Do you think the tradeable energy quotas that David Fleming came up with would be a useful tool for that?

Myself and my colleague Richard Starkey at the time did quite a lot of work on that, in fact we knew David quite well. Yes, I think it’s certainly one very serious route to consider and indeed David Miliband was quite keen on it at the time, DEFRA eventually dismissed it as “an economic instrument beyond its time”, so it was for the future. Well maybe the future’s here now and we should re-consider using it. It adds a very good equity dimension that demands greater changes from those of us that emit more than others. Coincidently, it is this fairness aspect that could drive innovation and the early adopters more than taxes and other economic instruments whereby high-emitters may be able to buy themselves out of change.

I think there’s some significant merit in it as an approach. Setting it up will not be easy. But we have to remember – people say it’s like rationing, well we’re all rationed by what’s called our salary, our income. So we’re all familiar with rations.  We are all the time juggling our rations of resources because of what we can and cannot afford. This is just one more of them.

I’m not sure it’s quite as difficult as some people suggest to imagine to have to ration, particularly if it only relates to our household energy consumption, electricity, gas and so forth and our vehicle consumption. I think as you start to extend it beyond that it becomes more problematic but I think applied to households and transport it could be a useful tool in catalysing widespread and more equitable engagement and more effectively driving innovation and deployment than would standard economic instruments.


Comments are now closed on this site, please visit Rob Hopkins' blog at Transition Network to read new posts and take part in discussions.


Caroline Cardew-Smith
2 Nov 10:53am

Kevin does not mention POPULATION, the elphant in the room. One of our greatest challenges and the reason why we have more growth and will continue to do so is because the huge increase in the population of the planet. This is something we have to address, everyone quite fairly wants a high standard of living but this planet’s resources are finite.

Mireille Mourad
2 Nov 11:19am

I want to ask “how to calculate the mean temperature of a week” and “how to calculate the weekly range of temperature” ?

Stephen Watson
2 Nov 11:56am

What an excellent, thoughtful, sobering and insightful discussion. Thanks Rob for making it available.

[…] clima, c’è una bella (si fa per dire) intervista di Rob Hopkins a Kevin Anderson che trovate qui nella versione per angloabili (ma Rupo è annoiato quindi forse sarà presto anche in […]

2 Nov 12:20pm

Really great interview, I hope the talk in Bristol is recorded and someone in the audience asks about the carbon footprint of the military and it’s relationship to the fossil fuel industries and the it’s role in the Middle East.

Chris Johnstone
2 Nov 12:32pm

Thank you Rob and Kevin for such a sobering interview. What a massive task we have in weaning ourselves off high carbon lifestyles and transitioning to a more resilient way. I found Kevin’s point about the importance of good examples very helpful – when people, communities and organisations do something different, it shows it is possible, and from there it can spread.

One example I’m inspired by is David Gershon’s ‘cool communities’ initiative and the city-wide carbon reduction programmes he has been involved with. I interviewed him for Permaculture Magazine’s website at

I’ve now arranged for him to offer a distance-learning programme on the Transformative Social Change framework and tools he has developed. He is particularly interested in making this relevant and useful to the Transition movement, and is charging a lower rate for Transition activists. He is offering a free webinar to explore this more on Dec 9th. Details at

Chris Johnstone
Centre for Resilience, Happiness and Positive Change

Lewis cleverdon
4 Nov 12:43am

Rob –
“Rapid and deep emissions reductions may not be easy, but 4°C to 6°C will be much worse”

I’m sorry to say that this presents a false dichotomy. And doubly sorry to hear it from one of Anderson’s standing.

Taking a credible best case for emissions reduction of getting to near zero output by 2050,
– regardless of whether that is by personal virtue demonstrations suddenly sweeping the whole world –
– or by determined popular global efforts at steering the politics to achieve an equitable and efficient global climate treaty –
– or by the latter adamantly supported by the former –
we are going to emit enough GHGs by 2050 for at least 0.6C of further warming.

Adding this to 0.7C of warming now timelagged “in the pipeline” of ocean thermal inertia,
plus the 0.8C of warming already realized,
would give 2.1C of warming as a total, but for one critical factor.

Ending our fossil fuel emissions means ending those of fossil sulphate which maintain the ‘Sulphate Parasol’ that veils the planet. As Hansen & Sato reported, the loss of the Sulphate Parasol will mean a rise of warming by 110%, (+/- 30%), raising the projected 2.1C to a total 4.41C (+/- 0.6C), that would be realized by about 2080 due the timelag of around 30 years after 2050. Our ‘best case’ for emissions control would thus give between 3.8C and 5.0C of warming.

However, there is a further critical factor, namely that of the interactive mega-feedbacks, of which at least six are already accelerating and several have the potential to dwarf anthropogenic GHG emissions. The most advanced of these, cryosphere decline (loss of snow & ice cover) causing albedo loss, is reportedly already causing warming equivalent to around 30% of our CO2 emissions. This feedback alone is already nearing the capacity to offset the 43% average annual intake of of our CO2 output by the natural carbon sinks.

In the 68 years between now and 2080, under our ‘best case’ emissions control, those feedbacks would have continuously intensifying warming to drive their interactions and outputs far beyond any possibility of our control. Under this scenario we should certainly have substantially more than 5.0C of warming in 2080, and warming would then continue at a pace dictated by the interactive feedbacks.

Arguments over emissions control via personal virtue or via collective political action for the global climate treaty are thus missing the point. Even the best case of emissions control is patently not remotely commensurate with our predicament.

In addition to emissions control, the sooner we apply a global program of Carbon Recovery, the sooner the atmosphere will be cleansed of our cumulative emissions. Yet the ‘best case’ I’ve seen for Carbon Recovery (via afforestation for biochar and coproduct methanol) put a completion date at least as far off as 2100, with the 30-year timelag on its effect, and thus gets nowhere near controlling the untenable warming this century.

Thus in addition, as a matter of simple necessity, we have no choice but to develop Albedo Restoration techniques to avoid the warming that we are already committed to. The most promising of these, using wind-driven vessels to loft a mist of seawater to brighten clouds, involves no exotic chemicals and can be halted within the nine days that such clouds rain out, so it avoids the obvious threats of some options. But just like a global program of Carbon Recovery, it still needs stringent globally accountable scientific supervision of its objectives, research, trials and deployment for the common global good. And any such use must be absolutely locked in to the achievement of emissions control.

In combination these factors point to the prerequisite need of an equitable and efficient climate treaty to ensure the proper parallel advance of emissions control, Carbon Recovery and Albedo Restoration. This is plainly unachievable by the personal virtue demonstration route, though it most certainly has its role to play, not least in propagating awareness at the grass roots of the need for adamant demand of collective political action on climate.



John Mason
5 Nov 11:03am

Interesting interview. Having been on the sharp end of the ‘Climate Wars’ for some time now, and having decarbonised significantly at the same time, I can indeed report that it is not as difficult as one might imagine: indeed, what it takes is imagination and innovation and waking up to the fact that rampant consumerism does not make people happy – rather, it leaves them hungry for more. Kicking it is liberating. Kevin’s points about life 30-40 years ago are very valid in this context. I grew up in Solihull (I’m 50 too) and I clearly remember shopping involved a high street as diverse as that celebrated by Totnes today, if not more so. No more – it is amazing what we have let slip away.

A quote from the interview:

“But also I find it increasingly difficult not to challenge friends and family, who often appear to have complete disregard for the impacts of their action. I’ve got to the point now where I think that when we’re profligately emitting, we’re knowingly damaging the lives and the prospects of some of the poorest people in our communities, both in the UK, but more significantly globally. Yet we obscenely carry on doing this. We’re happy to put a few pence into a collection pot in the middle of town to help people living in poorer parts of the world but we don’t seem to be prepared to make substantive changes to how we’re living our lives- even when we recognise the impact our emissions are having.”

Absolutely. Far too many people claim awareness of climate change yet are, to varying extents, paying it lip-service.

For myself, decarbonising plus joining the team at Skeptical Science at least had me feeling I was fighting realistically on two fronts: reskilling & relocalising my way of life whilst spending several to many hours a week awareness-raising, so much of which is needed as the situation evolves. In some ways, to me at least, the Skeptical Science team is like the steering group (only bigger) of Transition Earth! To continue the analogy, nothing would give me more pleasure to agree that we had reached the point of Unleashing – however the way things are, I don’t see that happening anytime soon! Climate change is so big (as Lewis points out above) and the changes in behaviour required are wrongly perceived to be so disruptive that the need for clear and well-referenced information on climate science is going to be there for many years to come.

Chris Vernon
5 Nov 5:38pm

Kevin’s talk will be streamed live, online, Tuesday 6th Nov from 18:00. Watch it here:

5 Nov 7:08pm

Good interview, although he shares with other notable climate scientists (e.g. Hansen, Jacobson) a somewhat un-nuanced and simple understanding of the relationship between economic growth and fuel and electricity consumption.

Alex Smith
5 Nov 7:36pm

If someone attending the event can send me a good quality recording, I would be interested in broadcasting it on the Radio Ecoshock show, on 62 stations in North America and the UK.

A recording on a computer in the audience will not do. It requires getting either a small recorder right on the podium, or even better, a microphone taped to the house microphone, right near Kevin’s mouth. Anything else picks up too much room noise.

If that’s you, please contact me ( for ways to send a quality mp3 file. More people need to hear what Kevin Anderson is saying.

Also, Lewis Cleverdon, could you also send me an email? I’d like to chat.

Alex Smith
Radio Ecoshock

Shaun Chamberlin
6 Nov 11:56pm

Simply a fantastic interview – well done Rob and Kevin.

And great to see the discussion of Tradable Energy Quotas (AKA TEQs), which seem to me too to be a key tool in a planned, managed and equitable drastic contraction in carbon emissions. I’m putting a lot of time into that campaign just now myself.

Finally, just a quick endorsement of Radio Ecoshock (the comment above) – I did an interview with Alex Smith a couple of years back, and he’s well worth working with.

Lewis cleverdon
7 Nov 2:29am

John – good to see your post here.
(I’m beginning to suspect that there are only a few hundred of us globally who regularly converse on climate on the web).

Alex at radio ecoshock has put up Anderson’s Bristol lecture at
which is a pretty devastating indictment of scientists working at the science-&-politics interface.

It would I think justify a program titled “The Great Global Warming Scandal” on grounds that the public are being utterly misled as to the gravity of our predicament.

This is of course a line I’ve pushed for a while from overall maths, but Kevin A has both documentary chapter & verse, as well as a professorship, directorship of the Tyndal Centre, etc.

So, given your role in SkS, what are the chances of getting him to put up a post detailing the shameful self-censorship – and outright distortions ? The public needs to be told the truth if we’re to get rising demand for action.

All the best,


John Mason
7 Nov 8:26am

Hi Lewis,

Indeed – it’s like a big extended family sometimes!

I’ll have a gander at Kevin’s lecture and alert the SkS crew to this thread so they can view it too, although at the moment we’re all a bit blown away with Obama getting back in – he even mentioned fighting climate change in his speech!!!

Alex Smith
7 Nov 8:45am

Here are two better links to the Kevin Anderson speech ( the link given about via yousendit will expire in a week or so).

To listen/download in CD Quality (56 MB)

Or try the faster downloading, lower quality version (14 MB)

Keep in mind this speech is courtesy of the Cabot Institute at the University of Bristol, which organized this brave and important speech, and did a great job of webcasting it.

Alex Smith
Radio Ecoshock

Biff Vernon
7 Nov 9:42am

Caroline Cardew-Smith, regarding your point about population, in the lecture Kevin Anderson did mention it, to point out that population is a long term issue while global warming needs to be addressed now. Unless we address global warming now population will become a non-issue, in a bad way.

Caroline Cardew-Smith
7 Nov 9:56am

I am secretary of Transition Ashtead in Surrey, most of what we are doing is to try and make people aware of how bad the situation is, but in a gentle way, otherwise it’s just too big and people don’t want to know. We need much more government lead on this and for scientists to talk louder – they are the ones in the know.

John Mason
7 Nov 10:15am

We do our best at Skeptical Science to explain what’s going on and where the uncertainties are – but of course if there is a degree of uncertainty about a prediction of e.g. a climatic feedback, it’s important to remember that uncertainty doesn’t mean something won’t happen: it instead means it could be lesser OR greater than estimates made with current levels of knowledge, which in some areas vary from topic to topic. A good example is the response of atmospheric circulation patterns to massive Arctic sea-ice loss. It is possible but not definite that such changes caused the unusual NW turn of Sandy to make landfall on the NJ coast. Likewise it is possible (and in this case rather likely) that the run of very wet summers the UK has suffered recently is related to the response of the Polar Jet to a declining temperature gradient between high and low latitudes as a consequence of the strong Arctic warming.

But you are right, Caroline: we need others to join in on this effort – at all levels!

7 Nov 11:07am

Caroline Cardew-Smith
7 Nov 3:38pm

We are always looking for speakers as we have a regular monthly public meeting on the 2nd Thursday of the month. So if you know anyone who lives near Ashtead, Surrey please pass on our details/website to contact me. We either have speakers or show films on topics about climate change, peak oil/energy, waste/recycling, local commerce/sustainable transport etc.
We have someone coming in Feb who did her masters in Climate Modelling who is going to talk about how that is done etc.

9 Nov 7:57pm

Hi Rob and all,

You might also like to see an article by Kevin, as well as one by me (on Transition) as the first and last chapters of a recently published book, “Climate, Development and Equity”.

Available online here:

Kevin Anderson: “Climate Change going beyond dangerous: brutal numbers and tenuous hope”

Teresa Anderson (no relation!): “Riding the Wave: how transition towns are changing the world and having fun”

10 Nov 10:47am

It’s really worth looking at the slides while listening to this talk, both are here:

Slide 77 really struck me:

“Pareto’s 80:20 rule

80% of something relates to … 20% of those involved

~80% of emissions from ~20% of population

run this 3 times

~50% of emissions from ~1% of population

… as a guide 40-60% emissions from 1-5% population”

It would be very interesting to know if this is true, do the 1% really cause half the CO2 emmissions? If this is even approxmitally true then clearly the climate crisis is a class crisis.

John Mason
10 Nov 11:30am

Thanks for that link Chris – have circulated it!